Re-Representation of Concept Maps
(Meena Kharatmal and Nagarjuna)
Developing a Method for Characterizing Change in Structure of Knowledge by Re-Representation of Concept Maps
The project has two primary objectives.
(I) Development of RCM Method – developing a method based on existing concept mapping by re-representation viz., Re-represented concept mapping (RCM), focusing on the meaning and kinds of linking words in a proposition or concept map.
(II) Qualitative Content Analysis – using the developed method i.e. RCM, to find out if it can bear any significance in representation of scientific knowledge; to show emerging patterns/themes specific to domain of knowledge and its representation.
The broad research questions of the project are:
- What insights can characterization of linking words provide for the nature of domain?
- What patterns emerge due to characterization of linking words?
An extensive content analysis of cell biology textbooks at 5 different grade levels ranging from high school, to college, to pre-university was conducted. Each sentences were mapped using concept map and re-represented concept maps. This processs has resulted into the following:
- concepts increase exponentially across increasing grades
- linking words as an indicator of expertise through proximity
- linking words attain saturation across increasing grades than concepts
- attributes increase across increasing grades at a significantly lesser rate than concepts
- patterns emerged during re-representation: nominalization, category shift, coalescence, refined, disambiguation, differentiation of linking words during re-representation
The results emerged into significant patterns organized in 3 major themes:
Theme 1 is related to categorization and category change, emerging into four patterns viz., five kinds of categories of semantic relations; three kinds of categories of attribution; parsimony in linking words; category changes during re-representation
Theme 2 is related to nominalization, emerging into four patterns viz., increase in process-oriented linking words, nominalization of process based linking words, saturation of function category, prominence of spatial inclusion linking words
Theme 3 is related to proximity with expertise emerging into two patterns, viz., highest match of re-represented linking words and attribution with bio-ontology database, proximity of re-represented linking words with that of experts
Science education research, cognitive science, concept mapping, language of science, expert thinking, knowledge re-structuring, semantic network, open biomedical ontology
- Meena Kharatmal & Nagarjuna G. (2016). Using Semantic Reference Set of Linking Words for Concept Mapping in Biology. In A. Canas, P. Reiska,& J. Novak (Eds.), Innovating with Concept Mapping. CMC 2016. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 635. Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-45501-3_25
- Meena Kharatmal (2014). A Proposal to Extend Concept Mapping to Concept Lattices for Representing Biology. International Summer School on Methodology of Task Design – How to Construct Exercises for Learning, Technische University, Dresden, Germany, 2014.
- Meena Kharatmal & Nagarjuna G. (2013): Representing Change Using Concept Maps. In G. Nagarjuna et.al. (Eds.) Proceedings of epiSTEME 5 – International Conference to Review Research on Science, Technology and Mathematics Education, p. 124-131. India: Cinnamonteal.
- Nagarjuna G. & Meena Kharatmal (2011): A Proposal for Developing a Primer for Constructing and Analyzing Conceptual Structures. In S. Andrews et al. (Eds.), Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence: Vol 6828. Conceptual Structures - Learning Teaching and Assessment. In International Conference on Conceptual Structures: Conceptual Structures for Discovering Knowledge (p. 402-405). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. Doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-22688-5_36
- Meena Kharatmal & Nagarjuna G. (2011): An Analysis of Growth of Knowledge Based on Concepts and Predicates—A Preliminary Study. In S. Chunawala & M. Kharatmal (Eds.) Proceedings of epiSTEME 4 – International Conference to Review Research on Science, Technology and Mathematics Education, p. 144-149. India: Macmillan.
- Meena Kharatmal & Nagarjuna G. (2010): Introducing rigor in concept maps. In M. Croitoru, S. Ferre, and D. Lukose (Eds.), Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence: Vol. 6208. International Conference on Conceptual Structures 2010: From Information to Intelligence (p. 199-202). Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. Doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-14197-3_22
- Meena Kharatmal (2009): Concept Mapping for Eliciting Students’ Understanding of Science. Indian Educational Review, 45(2), pp.31-43.
- Meena Kharatmal & Nagarjuna G. (2009): Refined Concept Maps for Science Education: A Feasibility Study. In K. Subramaniam & A. Majumdar (Eds.) epiSTEME 3 Third International Conference on Review of Science, Technology and Mathematics Education. Mumbai: MacMillan Publishers Ltd.
- Meena Kharatmal & Nagarjuna G. (2008): Exploring the Roots of Rigor: A Proposal of a Methodology for Analyzing the Conceptual Change from a Novice to an Expert In A. Canas, P. Reiska, M. Ahlberg, J. Novak (Eds.) Concept Mapping: Connecting Educators. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Concept Mapping. Tallinn, Estonia & Helsinki, Finland.
- Meena Kharatmal & Nagarjuna G. (2007): An Alternative Proposal for Eliciting and Assessing Students’ Knowledge Structure In C. Natarajan & B. Choksi (Eds.) epiSTEME 2 Second International Conference on Review of Science, Technology and Mathematics Education. Mumbai: MacMillan Publishers Ltd.
- Meena Kharatmal & Nagarjuna G. (2006): A Proposal To Refine Concept Mapping for Effective Science Learning In A. Canas, J. Novak, (Eds.) Concept Maps: Theory, Methodology, Technology. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Concept Mapping. San Jose, Costa Rica.
- Meena Kharatmal & Nagarjuna G. (2004): Understanding Science Through Knowledge Organizers. In J. Ramadas & S. Chunawala (Eds.) epiSTEME 1 First International Conference on Review of Science, Technology and Mathematics Education. Mumbai: HBCSE.